We’ve heard this over and over again!” Yet, many are still not giving their winter wheat crop the attention it deserves at planting. Yields are expected to average 63 bushels per acre, unchanged from last year (Blair Smith, State Statistician of USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service, New York Field Office on 8/17). Now is the time for winter wheat producers to consider the risks their crops might face and pick the Production Insurance coverage that meets their … OMAFRA Publications 811: Agronomy Guide. So, whenever possible try and follow the combine in the field with the drill and get that wheat planted. If conditions are dry during planting, adjust the depth to ensure the seed is in moisture. In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. PGRs can be applied to winter wheat to reduce plant height and increase stem thickness. The next four to eight weeks (October to November) allow the plant to vernalize (giving the plant the signal to flower next spring) and acclimate to the cold (harden off for the winter). Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Dry 7-34-20 (OMAFRA Publication 811: Agronomy Guide). In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. This takes away the ‘host organism,’ for a longer period of time with a three crop rotation helping disrupt the annual life cycles of pests such as western corn rootworm, sudden death syndrome, and frogeye leaf spot. The program encourages and supports farmers in eastern Nebraska to move from a strict corn-soybean rotation to a successful flex or targeted crop rotation where some winter wheat acres are considered each year and strategically placed. So if we want a profitable wheat crop we need to pay attention to the details in the fall and give it the best chance to survive whatever Mother Nature throws it’s way! However, Ontario research has shown a 1.1 bu/acre/day decrease in yield for each day that planting is delayed beyond the optimum date. 1 or No. Ontario’s five-year planting average is 869,000 acres. Researchers also found other benefits including increased total soil nitrogen, higher potentially mineralizable N, higher nitrogen use efficiency, reduce N rates needed in corn for maximum economic return, and higher yields in corn and soybean. For winter wheat, the physiological stage of heading (when the ear first emerges) is delayed until the plant experiences vernalization, a period of 30 to 60 days of cold winter te… Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario. Hard Red Winter used to occupy up to 18 percent of wheat acres in the province, but that number has dropped to an estimated 7 per cent in recent years and Ontario mills — including P&H and ADM — have taken notice. There seems to be a trend to decrease crop diversity instead of increase it, for example, in southeast Nebraska there are far less acres and farms growing oats, winter wheat, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. A Winter Wheat Works Initiative was started in 2016. The varieties that are now grown in Ontario are thus either introductions from the Old World, or descendants of such introductions. Spring wheat can be planted as early as you can work the soil. They made sure their winter wheat crop had the best start possible. While it may come as a surprise, you can plant winter wheat too early due to the increased risk of snow mould, lodging and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV). winter wheat production was to apply a low rate of, or no N fertilizer at planting, then broadcast the required N as Ammonium Nitrate in early spring (Fowler, 2002). Table 1. Seeding depth. Starter fertilizer provides nutrients for early growth and promotes root development, ultimately improving winter survival and crop uniformity the following spring. Attaining a consistent seed depth is important in order to increase the probability of … A diverse crop rotation appears to be the toughest practice to adopt. 4. As we saw with the 2019 winter wheat crop, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. In a recap of the winter wheat growing season in the province, Grain Farmers of Ontario senior agronomist Marty Vermey wrote that just as pollination was starting in the province, temperatures climbed and the rain stopped. When the upper layers of the soil dry out, the depth of sowing seeds on chernozems can be increased to 8 – 10 cm. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy, Michael Sindelar - Cropping Systems Extension Educator, variety selection and resources available to growers in east and south central Nebraska, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.04.034, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2015.03.012, Eastern Nebraska Growers Adding Wheat into the Rotation, Use plant diversity to increase diversity in the soil, Manage soils more by disturbing them less, Keep a live root throughout the year to feed the soil, Having both spring and fall planted crops. There is opportunity for producers in eastern Nebraska to include winter wheat, a cool season crop, in their rotation. Many other species of plants undergo vernalization, including a variety of fruit tree species and annual and biennial flowering plants. Farmers in Ontario were believed to have seeded roughly 700,000 acres of winter wheat in the fall of 2011, down from the usual one million, he said. 2 being average for an Ontario crop, says Joanna Follings, OMAFRA cereals specialist. 2015. Prepare to plant winter wheat in the fall, approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the soil freezes, as this allows for strong root growth. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). Planting was about two weeks early this year, thanks to an early bean harvest. The time to plant winter wheat varies considerably from place to place. Rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. Now and likely more so in the future, companies, consumers, and the entire supply chain are increasing interest to document sustainability down to the farm level. Increasing seeding rates can help, to an extent, overcome this decease of growth and maintain yield potential. The crop is planted in the early fall sothat the land generally does not have to be worked in the earlyspring when it is often too wet, and when there is a danger ofdamaging the soil structure. In 2007, a record 1.25 million acres of winter wheat were seeded in Ontario. There are many reasons why growers have been planting winter wheat in eastern Nebraska. Logistical hurdles of only having one or two fields was solved by finding another operator to custom drill and harvest the wheat crop or starting a new custom drilling business themselves. The cause of these measurable difference is likely due to the dense fibrous root system of wheat and the nitrogen derived from wheat root deposits. OMAFRA cereals specialist Peter Johnson estimates there are about 610,000 to 615,000 acres planted in Ontario, down from 1.06 million acres planted in 2013. 2015. If planting is delayed, rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. Overcoming some of the economic challenges included increasing awareness of the positive basis/cash price locally and finding opportunities to sell straw. Read a companion CropWatch article on the importance of, As part of the Soil Health Nexus Digital Cafe Series on August 26, 2020, Dr. Dwayne Beck with South Dakota State University, presents “, View a full list of why growers may benefit from adding winter wheat into the corn-soybean rotation along with a, Zuber et al. The recommended seeding rate for winter wheat in Ontario is between 350 and 450 seeds m −2 (OMAFRA 2010) and 450 seeds m −2 in western Canada, a rate which produced around 280 plants m … 2015. Winter Wheat Establishment: It’s All in the Details, on Winter Wheat Establishment: It’s All in the Details, OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 6, 2018, Strip-Till at Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show 2018, Identifying Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Winter Wheat, True Armyworm and Cereal Leaf Beetle in Cereals, Great Lakes and Maritimes Pest Monitoring Network. What impact will that late planting have on yields and emergence? Cash crop farmer Dan Caron, who farms at Port Lambton in Lambton County, got in an early crop of winter wheat this year. According to Agricorp, just under 1 million acres of winter wheat has been planted so far in Ontario. Figure 1. Adding winter wheat to a crop rotation comes with some economic challenges and logistical hurdles such as planting and harvesting only one or two fields of wheat and the learning curve that comes with growing a new crop. If, for example, you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 and September 30. A producer could add profit by growing forage crops after wheat for themselves or getting paid by a neighbor with cattle, moving the increased yield and profit in corn and soybean years attributed to wheat back to the wheat accrual budget. Acreage for harvest is forecast at 118 thousand acres, up 23 thousand from last year. In winter wheat country – from Texas to Nebraska – winter wheat is generally planted the end of September through mid-October. The southern area of this region may use wheat as pasture. When planting winter wheat, a relatively deeper seed placement is required, in which the tillering node is laid deeper. Wheat fits into the rotation after soybeans in Ontario. To retain snow during the winter, directly seed winter wheat into standing crop stubble. Classification into spring or winter wheat is common and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. Adding winter wheat to a crop rotation can increase crop diversity while improving soil health and addressing other agronomic challenges producers are currently facing. The planting date range for that region falls between those two dates. FIGURE 1. Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Liquid 6-24-6 (OMAFRA Publication 811: Agronomy Guide), Table 2. Wheat grows best in 70 to 75 degree Fahrenheit ((21 to 24 degrees Celsius) weather, so you should plant your wheat when the weather is approaching that temperature (and eventually rising). Plant winter wheat roughly one inch (2.5 centimetres) deep to prevent the crop from being subject to harsh winter conditions. As many farmers are getting ready to begin harvest, farmers who grow winter wheat are preparing to plant. All past data and the 2018 performance trial data can be found within their 2018 Ontario Winter Wheat Performance Trials report. Would you believe that some growers are adding winter wheat to their rotation to improve soil health? Seed-placed starter fertilizer has be shown to increase yields, on average, by 7.5 bushels per acre. It is generally not recommended to seed more than 10-14 days prior to the optimum date for your region. In a recap of the winter wheat growing season in the province, Grain Farmers of Ontario senior agronomist Marty Vermey wrote that just as pollination was starting in the province, temperatures climbed and the rain stopped. Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. Trials from 2005 and 2006 conducted by Ontario Soil and Crop indicate surprising results when seeding wheat very late. The fall can be a busy time with soybean harvest and winter wheat planting occurring simultaneously, but when it comes to winter wheat, time is money. As we saw in 2019, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. Red winter wheat is an excellent cover crop to plant in the fall to infuse nutrients back in turned soil and prepare the ground plot for seeds and plants cultivated in it the following spring. Dwayne Beck, a professor with South Dakota State University has long talked about rotational intensity and crop diversity. Higher seeding rates when planting is delayed will also assist with the reduced tillering that may occur before winter. Although winter wheat is quite competitive, weed pressure can have an impact on tillering, ultimately reducing yields. Winter Wheat in Ontario . 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