Since it is presumed that surface rupture will likely take place where past surface displacement has occurred, the state geologist was given the responsibility for evaluating and mapping faults that had evidence of Holocene rupture, and creating regulatory zones around them called Earthquake Fault Zones. The Antelope Valley Freeway had damage from Newhall Pass to the northeast, primarily from settling and alignment issues, as well as splintering and cracking at the Santa Clara River and Solemint bridges. One hundred seventy-five of the recordings came from these buildings, another 30 were on hydraulic structures, and the remainder were from ground-based installations near faults, including an array of the units across the San Andreas Fault. [22], Substantial disruption to about 10 miles of freeways in the northern San Fernando Valley took place, with most of the damage occurring at the Foothill Freeway / Golden State Freeway interchange, and along a five-mile stretch of Interstate 210. Intact blocks of embankment material moved tens of feet on liquefied hydraulic fill shell material (figures D-8-1 and D-8-2). A small number of damaging events have occurred, with three in Santa Barbara (1812, 1925, and 1978) and two in the San Fernando Valley (1971 and 1994), though other faults in the basin that have high Quaternary slip rates have not produced any large earthquakes. Besides those credited as authors, virtually all staff members in the Los Angeles office participated in the study: Wilma Ashby, Pat Caldwell, George Cleveland, Bill Edgington, Jim Evans, Don Fife, Cathy Govaller, Cliff Gray, Ed Kiessling, and Paul Morton. [19], The Veterans Administration Hospital entered into service as a tuberculosis hospital in 1926 and became a general hospital in the 1960s. The shaking surpassed building code requirements and exceeded what engineers had prepared for, and although most dwellings in the valley had been built in the prior two decades, even modern earthquake-resistant structures sustained serious damage. The five-story, reinforced-concrete Medical Treatment and Care Building was one of three new additions to the complex (all three of which sustained damage), was assembled with earthquake-resistant construction techniques, and was completed in December 1970. Derrumbe del paso elevado, 1971 El terremoto de San Fernando de 1971 produjo, mayormente, daños en los pasos elevados de las carreteras y los hospitales. The unanticipated thrust earthquake had a magnitude of 6.5 on the Ms scale, and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). Although the Richter magnitude of the tremblor was 6.6, ranking it as moderate to large, but not great, it shook a wide, heavily populated area, leaving death and destruction in its wake. Messrs. Gray and Caldwell went immediately to the Los Angeles District Office where they maintained constant contact with field, administrative, and disaster staffs. Electrical power and communications failed at the hospital at the time of the earthquake, but very few people occupied the lower floors and the stairways at the early hour. As a result, building of new structures for human occupancy across active fault lines was banned. Schools were affected, as they had been during the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, but this time amended construction styles improved the outcome for the thousands of school buildings in the Los Angeles area. Title: DAMAGE SURVEY, SAN FERNANDO EARTHQUAKE OF FEBRUARY 9, 1971. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake (also known as the Sylmar earthquake) occurred in the early morning of February 9 in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California. San Fernando Earthquake ofFebruary 9, 1971, in the epicentral region on a mountainridge at Pacoima Dam ofthe Los Angeles County FloodCon­ trol District. The near total failure of the Lower Van Norman Dam resulted in the evacuation of tens of thousands of downstream residents, though an earlier decision to maintain the water at a lower level may have contributed to saving the dam from being overtopped. Damage to the building, including ceiling tiles, telephone equipment, and elevator doors, was excessive at the basement and the first floor, with little damage further up. Since the collapse of the dam lowered its overall height, the decision to reduce its capacity proved to be a valuable bit of insurance. Except for the concrete gymnasium, all of the buildings at Sylmar High School (3.75 mi (6.04 km) from Pacoima Dam) were post-Field Act, one-story, wood construction. [11], Prominent surface faulting trending N72°W was observed along the San Fernando Fault Zone from a point south of Sylmar, stretching nearly continuously for 6 miles (9.7 km) east to the Little Tujunga Canyon. There was evidence to suggest the slope failure took place after the shaking had stopped. The gray zones represent areas with unsafe wood-frame dwellings (the locations of which are shown by a diamond symbols). We must hurry to learn what we can, and to put to use what we know, while our luck holds.... M.R.H. All these buildings had been previously inspected with regard to the requirements of the Act, and many were reinforced or rebuilt at that time, but earthquake engineering experts recommended further immediate refurbishment or demolition after a separate evaluation was done after the February 1971 earthquake, and within a year and a half the district followed through with the direction with regard to about 100 structures. The unanticipated thrust earthquake had a magnitude of 6.5 on the M s scale, and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).The event was one in a series that affected the Los Angeles area in the late … Upon revisiting the scene of his earlier mapping, Mr. Saul was able to recognize that movement had taken place on the Santa Susana thrust, in the Bee Canyon area. [10], Several key attributes of the event were shared with the 1994 Northridge earthquake, considering both were brought about by thrust faults in the mountains north of Los Angeles, and each resulting earthquake being similar in magnitude, though no surface rupture occurred in 1994. February 9, 1971, Granada Hills, CA. The San Fernando earthquake has been extensively studied by many seismologists, geologists, and earthquake engineers. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. A little known fact was that the Van Norman … There are various names for this earthquake. [26][27], Introduced as Senate Bill 520 and signed into law in December 1972, this legislation was originally known as the Alquist-Priolo Geologic Hazard Zones Act, and had the goal of reducing damage and losses due to surface fault ruptures or fault creep. Moving eastward, there is the Ventura Basin, the San Fernando Valley, and the San Gabriel Basin, with active reverse faults (San Cayetano, Red Mountain, Santa Susana, and Sierra Madre) all lining the north boundary. Although the Richter magnitude of the tremblor was 6.6, ranking it as moderate to large, but not great, it shook a wide, heavily populated area, leaving death and destruction in its wake. The two facilities, located near Grapevine and Weldon canyons that channel water and debris off the Sierra Madre Mountains, are lined by steep ridges and have formed alluvial fans at their mouths. The damage at the lower dam consisted of a landslide that dislocated a section of the embankment. The California Division of Mines and Geology is continuing to act as an information exchange center for those who have been and are engaged in geologic, se is mo logic, and geodetic investigations of the earthquake. The fault that was responsible for the movement was not one that had been considered a threat, and this highlighted the urgency to identify other similar faults in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. New legislation included the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zone Act and the development of the Strong Motion Instrumentation Program. [19], On the grounds, there were cracks in the pavement and soil, but no surface faulting. The greatest damage was in the San Fernando area, near the front of the San Gabriel Mountains, where three hospitals were badly damaged (one of them accounting for the greatest loss of lives). From Wikipedia: 1971 Quake. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Few of the slides that were logged from the air were also observed from the ground. When it was apparent that the landslide potential of the hillsides, though great, did not threaten any urban areas, the geologists turned their attention to the study of geologic effects--so often ephemeral--and to other geologic hazards that may have been developed or increased by the earthquake. The main building was demolished at a cost of $127,000, and none of the various post-Field Act buildings were damaged at the site. 1. By the time the sun had risen, ten geologists from the Los Angeles District Office of the California Division of Mines and Geology were in the field to appraise the geologic effects and to search for further potential hazards created by the earthquake. Ground displacement at the site was ruled out as a major cause of the failure, and in addition to the fallen sections and a crane that was struck during the collapse, other portions of the overpass were also damaged. When the Sylmar-San Fernando earthquake struck Southern California in 1971, 64 people were killed and more than 2,500 injured. The death toll of this earthquake was about 58, but the property damage was enormous. [24], The large number of public school buildings in the Los Angeles area displayed mixed responses to the shaking, and those that were built after the enforcement of the Field Act clearly showed the results of the reformed construction styles. Two were due to power failure of life-support systems and one, that of an employee who was struck by part of the collapsing building as he or she tried to exit the building, was a direct result of the destruction. As of 1973, a few of the highest risk (26 were completed in zone 3 alone) sites that had been completed were in Seattle, Memphis, Charleston, and Boston. The success in this area spurred the initiation of California's Strong Motion Instrumentation Program. The 1979 Imperial Valley and 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquakes were presented as gainful events that were recorded during that period, because both produced valuable data that increased knowledge of how moderate events affect buildings. On the day following the earthquake, State Geologist Wesley Bruer convened a meeting of more than 40 geologists and seismologists engaged in studying the earthquake, so that all investigative activities might be coordinated. Severe structural damage caused by the San Fernando earthquake corresponds to an intensity of IX, and locally X, and so it appears that the 1893 shock was the lesser of the two. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake (also known as the Sylmar earthquake) occurred in the early morning of February 9 in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California. Damage from the San Fernando Earthquake of 1971 was mostly to freeway overpasses and hospitals. Along the hill fronts of the Tujunga segment some ambiguous formations were present because some scarps may have had influence from downhill motion, but for the most part they were tectonic in nature. 1971 San Fernando (California) Earthquake Archive. Earthquake damage at Olive View Hospital, Sylmar, 1971 Creator Unknown Date Created and/or Issued 1971-02 2001-08-27 Publication Information California State University, Northridge. [17], The damage was greatest near and well north of the surface faulting, and at the foot of the mountains. An inspection of the lower dam in 1964 paved the way towards an arrangement between the State of California and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power that would maintain the reservoir's water level that was reduced 10 feet lower than was typical. Among those attending, in addition to Division personnel, were representatives from the California Institute of Technology, the U S. Geological Survey, the National Ocean Survey (a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Southern California, California State College at Los Angeles, and the University of Washington; from several state agencies-the Division of Oil and Gas, the Division of Highways, the Department of Water Resources; from Los Angeles County and from Los Angeles City; as well as from several private consulting firms. The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program was initiated in 1971 with the goal of maximizing the volume of data by furnishing and maintaining instruments at selected lifeline structures, buildings, and ground response stations. The slides ranged from 49–984 feet (15–300 m) in length, and could be further categorized as rock falls, soil falls, debris slides, avalanches, and slumps. Scarps ran along the sidewalk and across the property. On February 9, 1971, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake in California’s San Fernando Valley claimed 65 lives. Full Record In addition to the collapse of the stairways, the elevators were out of commission. The two geologists Carl Wentworth and Robert Yerkes from the US Geological Survey in Pasadena later wrote that "the San Fernando fault was discovered to be active only when it ruptured the ground surface on February 9, 1971. Earthquake Damage Photos . Vibration caused two of the bridge's 191-foot sections to fall from a maximum height of 140 ft (43 m), along with one of the supporting pillars. It was an expensive and heartbreaking lesson, but California has learned something, and can take heart. The event was one in a series that affected Los Angeles county in the late 20th century. [25], At Los Angeles High School (20 mi (32 km) from Pacoima Dam) where the exterior walls of the main pre-Field Act building (constructed 1917) were unreinforced brick masonry, long portions of the parapet and the associated brick veneer broke off and some fragments fell through the roof to a lower floor, while other material landed on an exit stairway and into a courtyard area. Because the first floor almost collapsed, the building was leaning to the north by almost two feet, and three of the four concrete stair towers fell away from the main building. The San Gabriel Mountains are a 37.3 mi (60.0 km) long portion of the Transverse Ranges and are bordered on the north by the San Andreas Fault, on the south by the Cucamonga Fault, and on the southwest side by the Sierra Madre Fault. The unanticipated thrust earthquake had a magnitude of 6.5 on the Ms scale, and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The event was one in a series that affected the Los Angeles area in the late … On February 9th, 1971, at approximately 6:00am, the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains were struck by a 6.7 earthquake. That’s because a fault with the provocative name of the Santa Susana thrust exhibited a lot of movement that day, with the result being an earthquake measured at 6.6 at its epicenter. Transportation around the Los Angeles area was severely afflicted with roadway failures and the partial collapse of several major freeway interchanges. Gordon Oakeshott, Deputy Chief had mapped part of the San Fernando 15-minute quadrangle in doing research for his doctoral dissertation in 1936; he revised and extended the map for publication in 1958 as California Division of Mines Bulletin 172, Geology and mineral deposits of the San Fernando quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California. Unlike the situation at the Antelope Valley Interchange, permanent ground movement (defined as several inches of left-lateral displacement with possibly an element of thrusting) was observed in the area. Earthquake damage at the Olive View Hospital from the Sylmar earthquake of February 9, 1971. The one-story Foothill Nursing Home sat very close to a section of the fault that broke the surface and was raised up three feet higher than the street. Teleseismic P, SV, and SH waves recorded by the WWSS and Canadian networks from the 1971 San Fernando, California earthquake (M L = 6.6) are modeled in the time domain to determine detailed features of the source as a prelude to studying the near and local field strong-motion observations. The narrow band of ground disturbances were found to have been the result of settling of the soft soil in a downhill motion. The landslides they mapped included those in the eastern half of the San Fernando quadrangle. As categorized during the intensive studies immediately following the earthquake, they were labeled the Mission Wells segment, Sylmar segment, Tujunga segment, Foothills area, and the Veterans fault. Earthquake bracing used in the building's second through fifth floors consisted of shear walls, but a rarely used slip joint technique used with the concrete walls at the first floor kept them from being part of that system. 1971 San Fernando Earthquake Collapsed Freeway Overpasses Photo. The group of one-story structures 300 feet west of the new facility, and some other buildings, were not damaged. The area where the heaviest effects were present was limited by geographical features on the three remaining margins, with the Santa Susana Mountains on the west, the At 2 mi (3.2 km), Hubbard Street Elementary School was the closest school to Pacoima dam, and was also less than a mile from the Veterans Hospital complex. San Fernando, CA Earthquake 1971 – Olive View Hospital Photos, Residental House Collapse. This made the earthquake the most documented event, at the time, in terms of strong-motion seismology; by comparison, the 1964 Alaska earthquake did not provide any strong motion records. Earthquake Damage Earthquake And Tsunami California History Southern California Vintage California San Andreas Fault San Francisco Earthquake San Fernando Valley Local History The origin of faulting was located five miles north of the San Fernando Valley. Nursing homes also were affected. Ground displacement damaged sidewalks and roads, with cracks in the more rigid asphalt and concrete often exceeding the width of the shift in the underlying soil. Northridge, CA Earthquake 1994 - Miscellaneous Pictures - … Only three lives were lost: two were patients who died when forcibly cut off from their positive pressure breathing equipment, and one staff member was killed by falling debris outside the building. The movement contributed to heavy damage at the Sylmar Juvenile Hall facility, Sylmar Converter Station, and the Metropolitan Water District Treatment Plant, but its effects on the interchange was not completely understood as of a 1971 report from the California Institute of Technology. Casualties in these highly affected areas might have increased had the shock occurred later in the day. [27], California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program, Prior to the San Fernando earthquake, some structural engineers had already believed that the existing groundwork for seismic design required enhancement. Although the county engineer has rated the medical care and treatment center and the psychiatric unit as total losses, for an estimated $31 million dollars, 615 patients and 300 staff members were safely evacuated. The difference in rigidity at the second floor was proposed as a cause of the considerable damage to the lower levels. By 1971, the facility comprised 45 individual buildings, all lying within 5 km (3.1 mi) of the fault rupture in Sylmar, but the structural damage was found to have occurred as a result of the shaking and not from ground displacement or faulting. Since both occurred in urban and industrial areas and resulted in significant economic impairment, each event drew critical observation from planning authorities, and has been thoroughly studied in the scientific communities. The overall fault displacement was summarized by geologist Barclay Kamb and others as "nearly equal amounts of north–south compression, vertical uplift (north side up), and left lateral slip and hence may be described as a thrusting of a northern block to the southwest over a southern block, along a fault surface dipping about 45° north. Several landslides occurred between Balboa Boulevard and California State Route 14, but the most significant damage occurred at the two major interchanges. It was California's third worst earthquake in terms of lives lost (exceeded by San Francisco, 1906 and Long Beach, 1933) and second in terms of property damage (exceeded by San Francisco, 1906). Recordprocessed by the JetPropulsion Laboratory, Pasadena; made avail­ able by the Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, California In­ It lasted about 60 seconds, and, in that brief span of time, took 65 lives, injured more than 2,000, and caused property damage estimated at $505 million. The unincorporated districts of Newhall, Saugus, and Solemint Junction had moderate damage, even to newer buildings. The earthquake was not, or should not have been, unexpected. [28][29], The San Gabriel Mountains with the Veterans Hospital complex in center (above) and selected cities with reported felt intensity in the United States (below), Ground level and overhead view of the scarp at the Foothill Nursing Home, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Interstate 210 and State Route 210 (California), List of Los Angeles Unified School District schools, "Preliminary strong-motion results from the San Fernando earthquake of February 9, 1971", "Tectonic setting of the San Gabriel mountains", "Seismically triggered landslides in the area above the San Fernando Valley", "The study of earthquake questions related to Veterans Administration hospital facilities", "Damage to constructed works, associated with soil movements and foundation failures", "Ground displacement at San Fernando Valley Juvenile Hall and the Sylmar Converter Station", "Highway damage in the San Fernando earthquake", "Earthquake damage to freeway structures", "History of the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, California, USA", "San Fernando 1971: M 6.6 - 10km SSW of Agua Dulce, CA", "Seismological studies of the San Fernando earthquake and their tectonic implications", "Strong motion data from the San Fernando, California, earthquake of February 9, 1971", "Pattern of faulting and nature of fault movement in the San Fernando earthquake", "Building damage in the San Fernando Valley", Historic Earthquakes – San Fernando, California, California Geological Survey – About CSMIP, Veterans Memorial Community Regional Park, Los Angeles County Department of Parks and Recreation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1971_San_Fernando_earthquake&oldid=1001027502, Geology of Los Angeles County, California, February 1971 events in the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 22:28. The earthquake was generated by thrust faulting on the Sierra Madre fault. [16], The areas that were affected by the strongest shaking were the outlying communities north of Los Angeles that are bounded by the northern edge of the San Fernando Valley at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. [21], The upper dam was constructed in 1921 with the hydraulic fill process, three years after the larger lower dam, which was fabricated using the same style. As one portion of the study, Dick Saul mapped in detail the southeast quarter of the Oat Mountain 71/2-minute quadrangle, through which the Santa Susana thrust fault cuts obliquely. Highly shattered rock was also documented along the ridge tops, and rockfalls (which continued for several days) were the result of both the initial shock and the aftershocks. This station is part ofthe NOAA accelerograph network. Other sites throughout the Los Angeles area had been instrumented as a result of local ordinances, and an extraordinary amount of strong motion data was recorded, more so than any other event up until that time. The hospital buildings, the freeway overpasses, and the Sylmar Juvenile Hall were on coarse alluvium that overlay thousands of feet of loosely consolidated sedimentary material. [12][13], All segments shared the common elements of thrust faulting with a component of left-lateral slip, a general east–west strike and a northward dip, but they were not unified with regard to their connection to the associated underlying bedrock. … Also known as the Sylmar Earthquake, this earthquake occurred on the San Fernando fault zone, a zone of thrust faulting which broke the surface in the Sylmar-San Fernando Area. Sylmar) earthquake (Mw = 6.6) occurred in the early morning hours of February 9. The San Bernardino, Santa Ynez, and Santa Monica Mountains are also part of the anomalous east–west trending Transverse Ranges. The buildings at both facilities were constructed with mixed styles, but engineers were unable to thoroughly study the buildings' responses because they were not outfitted with instruments for recording strong ground motion, and this prompted the Veterans Administration to later install seismometers at its high-risk sites. Dr. Morton's paper herein describes an additional 1,000 landslides generated by the earthquake--most of them west of the area previously mapped, but many in Big Tujunga Canyon, the site of already mapped slides. 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