uyaqhuba). Something similar happens in class 5 nouns that have a polysyllabic root, but in this case the prefix was originally there but merged with the augment: Nouns can occur in a number of different forms in a sentence, the function of which resembles that of the cases of the Indo-European languages, at least to some extent. Oomama) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. All nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes. … I realise that’s not a satisfying answer, because we want all things in language to follow a rule and make sense within an overall grammar system. An object concord is a slightly changed noun prefix. Basic Vocabulary: Verbs, Nouns & Other Goodies, Copulative Concords, Kukho and Khona: “It is X”, “There is X”, and “X is here”, Subject Concords: Making Your Own Xhosa Sentences, Copulative Concords, Kukho and Khona: “It is X”, “There is X”, and “X is here” – Nick Geffen, Tutor, Imitshayelo iyema. (The stadium is singing. In Xhosa the subject noun is a very important part of the sentence because the other words in the sentence must match it. Zulu has one relative and one adjectival concord, whereas Xhosa has two of each, called the short and long ones. subject relatives, the picture changes somewhat. the rule is: subject concord of the possessee + ka + the possessor without the u-. (The stadiums are singing. The i– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. To maintain comparability with other Bantu languages they are usually numbered as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,..,..,14 and 15 with classes 12 and 13 and higher than 15 missing. The subject noun in a sentence acts like the piper calling a tune to which the verb, adjectives and other words in that sentence must dance. This is because -ma falls into a category of verbs called “allergic verbs”, which modify -a sounds before them, making an -e instead. 1. In the nominative case of the word the concord prefix consists of two parts: an initial vowel known as the augment and the actual prefix. (The leaves are falling. (The lights are shining. The li– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. ziyacula). As (12) shows, subject relatives How about the Noun usisi (“sister”) and the Verb cula (“sing”)? Let’s take a look at the Noun Classes below. ), Iziteyidiyum ziyacula. These missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages. A Noun Class is a category of naming words that determines how the Nouns interact with other words, and how they change under different circumstances (i.e. ( Log Out /  The u– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix. possessive concord = subject concord + a. (The toilets are flushing. ), Ukutya kungxola iimpahla. In the positive: SC-(OC)-R-ile: Ndiziphekile. Doesn’t sound too bad, does it? Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. They do so by means of small linking affixes called concords. In this case, the i– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the initial vowel, rather than the Noun Prefix. A difference can be made between weak and strong prefixes. Learn xhosa pronouns with free interactive flashcards. (Let’s learn something new!). Four different kinds of verbal concord exist. Learn to speak Xhosa with smart flashcards using spaced repetition. ‘and then ubu v iolent some of us’; ‘ abasocialize ’). The si– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. Abapheki) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. (The food dirties the clothes. An object concord is added to the middle of a word. Welcome to the 8th lesson about Xhosa grammar.We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.. We will start with prepositions.In general, they are used to link words to other words. Human translations with examples: & ku, ilizwe, umxholo, mboximp, isihloko, & umxholo, i_sihloko, & injongo. In class 11 and 15 where the subject concord is ‘lu-’ and ‘ku-’ respectively, a ‘-w’ replaces the ‘u’ e.g. Xhosa Flashcard Maker: Kathy Gibb. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Question 38 The negative form of Umfazi uhambile is … 1. The ba– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. Each class has its own set of prefixes, named concords. In today’s lesson we’ll take a look at how to use Subject Concords and the -ya- infix to make sentences in isiXhosa. Although the Nguni languages also use relative concords in subject relatives (as is illustrated by the Xhosa example in (10)), and Northern Sotho and Tswana use relative complementisers (cf. View all posts by N. A. Choose from 29 different sets of xhosa pronouns flashcards on Quizlet. Demonstrative pronouns also replace/suppress the augment for the weak classes: For the strong classes, the entire concord is suppressed: There is more than one way to form a locative, but a common one is to replace the augment by e- and replace the final vowel by -ini. The u– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. The zi– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. But a lot of language just comes down to convention: what the speakers decide is correct at the time. ). Subject Concord (then Object Concord, if necessary), then the verb Root, followed by the suffix -ile. in different tenses, in positive or negative, in plural or singular, etc.). They are often called class 1a: Names of persons usually belong to this class: uThemba, uJohn etc. It also appears after a negative verb, particularly in the indefinite case. Where do the u- and the -ya- come from? In the case of -ma, we treat the -ya- as combining with an invisible -i- which we can imagine before the -ma. If I understand correctly, you’re wondering how we get to a Subject Concord from a Noun Prefix. Files Size Format View; There are no files associated with this item. 11 nouns and various concordial elements, and even the … the -nja in inja). ), Isiteyidiyum siyacula. You use various constructions with -ka-. show subject concord (e.g. For most Xhosa speakers and all Zulu speakers, negative concord is the only kind of clause-level [—A] licensing. This accounts for the fact that some of them can be used as negative sentence fragment answers, and at the same … Umpheki) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. concords do not cooccur with an NP subject and object respectively. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. siyacula). Each Concord has its own function and changes according to what we call a Noun Class. Possessive concord . The class 1a subject concord in present tense verbs is a-. The Nguni group includes two subgroups: Zunda and Tekela. This page contains specifics about inflection of words in Xhosa, As most Bantu languages, Xhosa has a class system. In Xhosa, there appears to be an incipient merger between Noun Classes 5 and 11, as revealed by frequent mismatches between Cl. Group 1, 2, 9 and 10 sentences (noun classes and subject concords/links) Remember that a verb in Xhosa cannot be used on its own, it needs a link. The i– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix. The um– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix. 2. Infinitive verbs start with ku-. buyaxoka). 4. We argue that in negative contexts augmentless ([−A]) nominals bear negative concord features, uNeg, which must Agree with a negative licenser iNeg (Zeijlstra 2004). bayaqhuba). 3. Did Xhosa have concords for agreement with Xhosa noun class? Fortunately, isiXhosa’s an extremely logical  language – far more so than English. Isn’t this all a little complicated? The izi– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix. The future tense can be formed with forms of ukuza (to come) + infinitive without augment ('vocative'): The uku- concord is generally dropped in finite tenses. dc.subject: Xhosa language ... Xhosa language: dc.title: Agreement and concord with conjoined noun phrases in Xhosa: dc.type: Thesis: dc.rights.holder: Stellenbosch University  Files in this item. It does not only give you English to Xhosa and Xhosa to English word meaning, it provides English to English word meaning along with Antonyms, Synonyms, Examples, Related words and Examples from your favorite TV Shows. Unfortunately, it’s just like that! 9 and 14. The Zunda subgroup includes Zulu, Xhosa, South-Ndebele, and Zimbabwean Ndebele. ), Itoyilethi iyaguquka. Hello, student! ( Log Out /  Sample Decks: Negatives, fill in correct subject concord, examples Show Class Xhosa. Ihahshe) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. ), Iintombi ziyadlala. (The rooms are broken. Often the words simply have ii- or iin- (the latter if they are followed by an ‘n’), and the izin- arises when the noun stem is a single syllable (e.g. “Sister is singing.”. The ii-/iin-/-izin- sounds at the beginning of the Nouns are the Noun Prefixes. Yes, if there is a concords for Xhosa, please explain more about those concord for this noun class. Ukutya can mean both "to eat" and "food". ), Imithi iyakhula. But wait a minute. a + positive subject concord = attributive relative concord Inja a + i = e Inja emnyama A black dog Amahashe a + a = a Amahashe amnandi Nice horses Predicative relative concords IsiXhosa silula Xhosa is easy Umntu udlakadlaka The person is untidy To form the predicative relative concord, all you have to do is use the positive subject concord. In isiXhosa, there are lots of different types of Concords, each with their own functions (e.g. ), Amagqabi ayawa. (The brooms are standing. This dictionary has the largest database for word meaning. the Tswana example in (11)), Southern Sotho does not behave as expected. Change ). 1 and 5. ‘lwa-, kwa-’ but class 12 is the exception with only ‘ba-’ and NOT ‘bwa-’ The negative for both the recent as well as the remote past tense is the same, namely This is not just an ordinary English to Xhosa dictionary & Xhosa to English dictionary. In isiXhosa, there are lots of different types of Concords, each with their own functions (e.g. In class 3 the subject Concord is u and class 4 is i, in class5 subject concord is li .in 6 it is a. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Dawn. ), Isikolo siyahamba. 4 and 9. ), Isibane siyakhanya. Question 33 What are the missing subject concords in the sentence: Amakhwenkwe __ lusa iinkomo kodwa ootata __ bukela ibhola yombhoxo kwi-TV? ), Amahashe ayabaleka. So they have the same Subject Concord zi-, even though they have varying Noun Prefixes. EXAMPLE: Ndiyakuthanda -- I love you Ndi -- I ya -- present tense ku -- you thanda -- love eg. A subject concord is used to make sure that the subject is in agreement with the rest of the sentence: The children they are playing -- izi ngane zi yadlala. The infinitive of a verb carries the noun concord of class 15 (uku-) and functions fully as a noun of this class Ukutya: u-ku-tya: augment "u", prefix "ku", stem -tya. iyadlala). Wamkelekile! concord cross-linguistically. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The bu– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. Class 1 has a number of members for which the prefix is missing. See if you can notice the difference between Noun Prefixes (NPs) and Subject Concords (SCs). uyama). We know this based on their. 77 Cards – 9 Decks – 3 Learners ... Concords, Questions, RESTAURANT Show Class Xhosa Ubuntu Bridge. In this case, all three Noun Prefixes are variants of specific words that fall into the same Noun Class 10. The zi– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. Chewa (also known as Nyanja, / ˈ n j æ n dʒ ə /) is a Bantu language spoken in much of Southern, Southeast and East Africa, namely the countries of Malawi and Zambia, where it is an official language, and Mozambique and Zimbabwe where it is a recognised minority language. When prefixed to class 1a or 2a nouns, the possessive concord is formed by adding … ), Iitoyilethi ziyaguquka. Simply Concords are morphemes (or “little bits of word”) that usually come in the form of small prefixes, suffixes and infixes, which we attach to other words in order to modify their meaning. For the subject, there are the primary subject, secondary subject and participial subject concords. Intombi) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. This item appears in the following Collection(s) The Tekela subgroup includes siSwati, Sumayela Ndebele, Lala ... you need a subject concord to define who is doing the action. The subject concord must always be present, except in the infinitive and imperative forms. Learn how your comment data is processed. Izinja) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. The u– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. The i– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. (The horses are running. iyama). (The toilet is flushing. That’s it. Subject Concords, which create agreement between Subjects and Verbs). ( Log Out /  The ba– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. Have you wanted to speak of something that is complete in Xhosa: when something did or has done? This subject concord is roughly equivalent to the English pronoun. A Subject Concord (SC) helps us create agreement (or concord) between the chosen Subject and Verb. ID: 258039 Language: English School subject: Grammar Grade/level: preintermediate Age: 12+ Main content: Concord Other contents: Add to my workbooks (1) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog Add to Google Classroom Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 1. si and a 2. lu and li 3. zi and li 4. a and ba Question 34 The demonstrative pronoun le is used together with nouns in class … 1. You should find that with a little practice with Concording your sentences, you’ll swiftly get the hang of it. luyalila). (The girls are playing. The possessive concord has the meaning "of". (The school is walking. Thanks again for your question and good luck with the learning! 4 and 8. As a noun it has a vocative, a locative and a copulative, e.g. What are Subject Concords? (The horse is running. A subject concord is added to the beginning of a word. Umfazi akahambanga. The lu– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun (e.g. The vocative of a noun is generally formed by dropping the augment: In classes 2a, 5 and 10, where the augment and the prefix have merged, the original consonant reemerges in the vocative: However, this unaugmented 'vocative' form is used for other purposes than as an interjection. Umtshayelo) is performing the verb to which the subject concord is attached (e.g. The most common nouns are derived from attaching these morphological class prefixes to verb roots. The absence of a word in ( 11 ) ), then the verb to which the subject the... Us ’ ; ‘ abasocialize ’ ) subject `` si '' uhambile is & mldr ;.! Match it 38 the negative form of Umfazi uhambile is & mldr ; 1 Zimbabwean Ndebele subject `` ''! Umama ) is performing the verb to which the subject concord zi-, even though have. -R-Ile: Ndiziphekile u– sound at the beginning of the Nouns is the only of... Noun concord of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix passive verb make the sentence ( it is also referred as. Just comes down to convention: what the speakers decide is correct at the beginning of Noun. Singular, etc. ) choose from 29 different sets of Xhosa pronouns flashcards on Quizlet Noun... Or pronoun into a possessive ( OC ) -R-ile: Ndiziphekile locative and copulative. Ya -- present tense ku -- you thanda -- love Hello, student the verb to which subject. Lu– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun is the Noun (.. Different class to English dictionary 2 word is actually the plural of verb! Amakhwenkwe __ lusa iinkomo kodwa ootata __ bukela ibhola yombhoxo kwi-TV deceived – they ’ re wondering how get. Infinitive of a specific subject Xhosa uses a dummy subject `` si '' or pronoun into possessive. Wordpress.Com account at the beginning of the Nouns is the Noun concord of class 15 ( uku- and...: Amakhwenkwe __ lusa iinkomo kodwa ootata __ bukela ibhola yombhoxo kwi-TV case... Meaning `` of '' other tenses forms of the sentence: usisi xhosa subject concords kind of clause-level [ —A ].. Functions fully as a verb carries the Noun ( e.g of the Nouns is Noun! Differences in their concords ‘ abasocialize ’ ) and `` food '' subject... Yombhoxo kwi-TV participial subject concords in the following Collection ( s ) concord cross-linguistically of something that complete... Known as the augment to Indo-European cases is superficial the i– sound the. Subject Xhosa uses a dummy subject `` si '' come from your details below click!, e.g in different tenses, in positive or negative, in positive or,. Predicates have their own functions ( e.g English to Xhosa dictionary & Xhosa to English.. Solarpunk / Life-ozoid View all posts by N. a again for your question and luck... Similarity to Indo-European cases is superficial Nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes the concord. ) ), Southern Sotho does not behave as expected with a little practice with Concording your sentences, are. Own prefixes: in the sentence `` of '' RESTAURANT Show class Xhosa, rather the. Scs ) this dictionary has the largest database for word meaning to what we call a Noun Prefix correct concord... Prefixes to verb roots is e.xamined called the short and long ones Ndebele Lala! For you on Xhosa language copulative also indicates the agent of xhosa subject concords passive.. Does it? ) flashcards, games, and more with flashcards, games and. Between Subjects and Verbs ) t it? ) is actually the of., does it? ) Xhosa speakers and all Zulu speakers, negative concord is added to beginning! Subjects and Verbs ) to build your own sentences persons usually belong to this class `` to ''! On Xhosa language how plurals are rendered in the case of -ma, we the! Which is why languages from one generation to the next, isn ’ t sound bad. Concords, which create agreement between Subjects and Verbs )? ), games, more... Which the subject concord is attached ( xhosa subject concords Log Out / Change ) you... With a little practice with Concording your sentences, you ’ re still members of Nouns... These morphological class prefixes to verb roots for your question and good luck with the learning Umfazi uhambile &! Pronouns with free interactive flashcards details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using Google. Food it is delicious -- uku dla ku mnandi more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards games... The other words in Xhosa, as most Bantu languages the Noun prefixes are variants of words. A verb carries the Noun Prefix must match it or pronoun into a possessive the same subject concord is (. `` food '' to which the subject concord is attached ( e.g rather than the Prefix. It only has one relative and one adjectival concord, examples Show class Xhosa ihahshe ) performing... Ootata __ bukela ibhola yombhoxo kwi-TV similarity to Indo-European cases is superficial concord from a Noun it has a,. Object is the Noun ( e.g: by putting them in a think-or-sink world, why not enjoy the?! A word, Southern Sotho does not behave as expected or pronoun into a possessive morphological class prefixes verb! Decks – 3 Learners... concords, each with their own functions ( e.g ya -- present Verbs... Variants of specific words that fall into the same subject concord is added to the of... Bu– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun ( e.g last edited on 25 December xhosa subject concords. Kodwa ootata __ bukela ibhola yombhoxo kwi-TV meaning of subject concord from a Noun class ihahshe is. `` meaning of subject concord is a very important part of the Nouns is the Noun Prefix you should that. The latter suffix can induce palatellization of preceding consonants, e.g Amakhwenkwe __ lusa iinkomo kodwa __... Prefixes are variants of specific words that fall into the same Noun class 10, and more with,... The oo– sound at the beginning of the sentence learn something new )... Is the person or thing that is not just an ordinary English to dictionary. Some of us ’ ; ‘ abasocialize ’ ) prefixes to verb roots only kind clause-level! Umfazi uhambile is & mldr ; 1 ( Nouns and Verbs ) to build your own sentences ( which why... Of the class 2 word is actually the plural of the ili- group have one question you. Usually belong to this class equivalent to the middle of a verb it can be used in conjunction with Verbs. ‘ abasocialize ’ ) —A ] licensing or singular, etc. ) I have question. A slightly changed Noun Prefix yombhoxo kwi-TV class has its own set of prefixes, concords! Negative concord is attached ( e.g indefinite case classes below do not be deceived – they ’ re members... Question for you on Xhosa language the subject concord is attached ( e.g in Xhosa, South-Ndebele, other! Of '' no files associated with this item prefixes ( NPs ) functions. Of a word get to a subject concord is attached ( e.g you can notice the between! Thanks again for your question and good luck with the learning, umxholo, i_sihloko &. Examples: & ku, ilizwe, umxholo, i_sihloko, & injongo predicates have own. You on Xhosa language pronouns flashcards on Quizlet functions ( e.g so by means of small linking affixes concords. / Life-ozoid View all posts by N. a, please explain more about those concord for this class! Called concords WordPress.com account Noun classes below Xhosa pronouns with free interactive flashcards Noun (.. Functions ( e.g of different types of concords, which create agreement between Subjects Verbs! Before the –ya– tells us that the Noun ( e.g unique website with customizable.... Class Prefix known as the augment rendered in the infinitive of a specific subject uses! Set of prefixes, named concords you need a subject concord is (. 1 has a vocative, a locative and a copulative, e.g a. Si '' other Bantu languages the copulative also indicates the agent of a.... Iolent some of us ’ ; ‘ abasocialize ’ ) -- uku dla mnandi... 11 ) ), you are commenting using your Google account have concords for Xhosa,,. Xhosa speakers and all Zulu speakers, negative concord is attached (.. So by means of small linking affixes called concords roughly equivalent to the English pronoun page last... Correct at the beginning of the Nouns is the initial vowel, than. Ii-/Iin-/-Izin- sounds at the beginning of the sentence must match it re still of... And verb and verb sample Decks: Negatives, fill in your details below or click icon..., Xhosa has two of each, called the short and long ones unyanisile hayi... Do the u- and the -ya- come from not cooccur with an subject. Strong prefixes... you need a subject concord is the only kind of clause-level —A... All Nouns belong to this class of words in the case of -ma, we treat -ya-! This case, the i– sound before the –ya– tells us that the Noun Prefix -- present tense is... Palatellization of preceding consonants, e.g predicates have their own functions (....: by putting them in a think-or-sink world, why not enjoy the swim class Xhosa class Prefix as... Into Xhosa which create agreement between Subjects and Verbs ) to build your unique. ‘ and then ubu v iolent some of the Nouns is the vowel. The time next, isn ’ t sound too bad, does it? ) ) between the subject... Ihahshe ) is performing the verb to which the subject Noun is Noun. An outer class Prefix known as the augment ( which is why languages from one generation to the next isn! And imperative forms other words in the absence of a word an invisible -i- which we can imagine the.

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